Big Ideas: Earth & Space Kindergarten: Daily and seasonal changes affect all living things. Grade 1: Observable patterns and cycles occur in the local sky and landscape. Grade 2: Water is essential to all living things, and it cycles through the environment. Grade 3: Wind, water, and ice change the shape of the land. Grade 4: The motion of Earth and the moon cause observable patterns that affect living and non-living systems. Grade 5: Humans use earth materials as natural resources. Grade 6: The solar system is part of the Milky Way, which is one of billions of galaxies. Grade 7: Earth and its climate have changed over geological time. Grade 8: The theory of plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains Earth’s geological processes. Grade 9: The biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere are interconnected, as matter cycles and energy flows through them.