Big Ideas: Physics Kindergarten: The motion of objects depends on their properties. Grade 1: Light and sound can be produced and their properties can be changed. Grade 2: Forces influence the motion of an object. Grade 3: Thermal energy can be produced and transferred. Grade 4: Energy comes in a variety of forms that can be transferred from one object to another. Grade 5: Machines are devices that transfer force and energy. Grade 6: Newton’s three laws of motion describe the relationship between force and motion. Grade 7: The electromagnetic force produces both electricity and magnetism. Grade 8: Energy can be transferred as both a particle and a wave. Grade 9: Electricity is the flow of electrons.